Sunday, May 20, 2012

Materi Morphology

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alently ambiguous sentence in any other language. In other words, the ambiguity results from a peculiarity in the transformational rules of English.
Transformations, ther., allow us to express the fact that one basic meaning can have several paraphrases expressed in different surface structures and that an ambiguous sentence, represented by one sur­face structure, has two or more basic meanings that are represented by different deep structures.
One transformation applied to all sentences is the flip-flop (FF) rule, by which certain endings are attached to the verbal forms that follow them. The flip-flop rule may be-generalized as
FF Rule: Affix + Verbal Verbal + Affix
Condition: Constituents affected by FF may undergo the rule only once.
Affix may be Tense, -en, or -ing. Verbal may be V. M, be, or have. (Double-stemmed arrows, signify a transformational rule.) For an example of how the rule operates, consider the deep structure pre­sented in Figure 10-1. FF may operate at two points: at Pres +have and-at -en + see, which are in the correct order for application of the rule. Thus,
Deep structure: a girl Pres have -en see the man After FF: a girl have Pres see -en the man
Notice that we imposed the condition that the FF rule can apply to each relevant constituent only once; otherwise, there is nothing to prevent Pres +see from being flip-flopped. This condition thus pre­vents the generating of such an ungrammatical sentence as *A girl have sees -en the man.
As the FF rule illustrates, the statement of a transformation in­volves two parts: a structural description and a structural change. The structural description specifies the structure that must be present in order for the rule to apply (for example, Affix + Verbal). The struc­tural change indicates how the structure is affected by the rule (for ex­ample, Verbal + Affix). Conditions on the application of the rule may or may not be present, and linguists have recently been working hard to eliminate conditions wherever possible.
It is also important to note that Affix and Verbal, as stated, are somewhat artificial- categories, since they do not appear in the deep structure tree of Figure 10-1. We use these categories because they allow us to state the rule more easily; nevertheless, their use must be considered a flaw in the theory, which ultimately must be corrected.
After the application of FF, only one other rule need be invoked to transform the deep structure in Figure 10-1. This rule, which may be called the lexical-formation (LF) rule, requires that the lexicon be con­sulted to determine the final appeaiance of the nouns and verbs in surface structure. This rule eliminates all terms that are not actually words of the surface structure; it tells us that have + Pres is has in the third person singular and have otherwise and that see +-en is seen, as follows:
By LF: a girl has seen the man
The FF and LF rules are the only transformational rules that must be applied in order to derive all surface structures. Of course, many other transformational rules apply under certain conditions. Ideally, the conditions of application should be apparent in the deep structure, although it does not always work out that well.
The formation of imperatives, questions, and negations involves operations that are signaled by constituents in the deep structure. The first rule of the phrase-structure grammar must be altered at this point to introduce these constituents:
 (timP }) + (Neg) NP + Aux + VP Ques In other words, a sentence still consists of an NP, an Aux, and a VP; but it may also optionally be a question. an imPerative, a negative, a negative-question, or a negative-imperative. Because Imp, Ques, and Neg are optional, it is still possible that none is realized, in which case the sentence will be declarative and positive.
Consider how the imperative sentence Wash car! is generated. The underlying, or deep, structure for this sentence must include the constituent Imp, the subject NP you, the Modal will, and the present tense. This analysis is supported by the existence of a sentence like Wash the car, won't you?. in Which von and will "surface." Further evidence for an underlying subject you in imperatives is 'seen in sen­tences such as Watch yourvell. The first phrase-structure will now produce the structure:
Imp             NP                   Aux                          VP
Deep Structure for the Sentence Wash the car!
          Imp• -NP          Aux                       VP
/ \ /\
   N     Tense Modal         V          NP
                              I                                I          I
Lex[N]              Lex[Mi Lex[V)        Det         N
  1                    1                 I      I
Lex[Det] LexiNI
                                                                                             I          I
                          you       Pres       will      cash   the             - cal
The constituent Imp then triggers the imperative transformation, which has the following effect:
                 Imperative transformation: Imp + you +will     0
In other words. the_constituents Imp. you, and will are deleted. The FF rule then switches the order of the constituents Pies + wash, giv­ing wash +.pres. The LF rule then tells us that wash + Pres is wash, thus generating the sentence Wash the car!
The sentences discussed this far have been simple, one-clause sen­tences, such as the follOwing:
I. The bell rang.
2.   A student entered the building-.
3.   The child likes the horse.
4.   The horse roams on the farm.
But many sentences contain more than one clause; for example,
5.   The bell rang and a student entered the building.
In order to generate sentences like this, we need the modified phrase-structure rule:
S —0 S (Conj Sl
where Conj represents and, or, and so on. Thus, the deep structure of sentence 5 would appear as in Figure 10-3.
Figure 10-3 shows a relatively straightforward-looking deep struc­ture: two sentences are joined by and. But in order to generate sen­tences like
Deep Structure jOr Sentence 5: The bell rang and a student entered the building..

Conj                                  S

I Ns

Aux      VP
Lex[Conj             NP                  Aux           VP


/\       I            \

Det              N


Dct                    N                         Tense
LexfDetj Lex/ N I


Lex Dell            LexIN/
LexIVL Det


The       h 41 Past ri               and
Lex' Det1 Lex1N
Atudent Past enter the           building

6.   The child likes the horse that roams on the farm. phrase-structure rule 2 must be revised as follows: NP--*tDet)+N i-(S)
The deep structure of sentence 6 appears in Figure 10-4. In this struc­ture, one sentence is contained within another. The sentence The horse roams on the farm appears under the category label S. which appears directly under the category label NP. Such a sentence is called an embedded sentence.
In both revised phrase-structure-rules. the symbol S appears to the right of the arrow, allowing simple sentences to be contained within more complex sentences. In theory. these rules could be applied infi­nitely producing sentences like .
7.   John has a cat and Mary has a dog and Phil has a canary and . . .
8.   The student likes the professor who likes the administrator who likes his mother who . . .
—Such-rules-that can apply over and over again are called recursive. and they permit an infinite number of sentences of infinite length to be generated in a language.
The deep structure presented in Figure 10-4 is transformed into sentence 6 through the application of the relative transformation, which moves the second, identical occurrence of the NP the horse out
, of the embedded sentence to the position of the horse in the main sen­tence, leaving only one occurrence of the horse. Then an appropriate _relative pronoun — in this case that — is substituted into the position from which the second occurrence of the horse was moved.

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